Peritoneal melanosis associated with metastatic melanoma previously treated with targeted and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy

Kwang Kiat Sim, Katie Connell, Mayank Bhandari, David Paton
BMJ Case Reports 2021 January 11, 14 (1)
Peritoneal melanosis is an uncommon benign condition, the pathophysiology of which is unclear. Macroscopically, it appears as diffuse dark brown or black pigmentation within the peritoneum, mimicking more sinister conditions such as metastatic melanoma. It has been described in a variety of contexts, but only exceedingly rarely in association with metastatic melanoma, with only two previous published case reports. We present a case of peritoneal melanosis associated with metastatic melanoma involving the spleen, previously treated with targeted and immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. With increasing reports of melanoma regression manifesting as cutaneous tumorous melanosis in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, we postulate that, similarly, immunotherapy and tumour regression might have a role to play in the pathogenesis of the peritoneal pigmentation in this case.

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