[Pathogens' distribution and changes of antimicrobial resistance in the bile of acute biliary tract infection patients]

Z Y Wu, X S Wu, W Y Yao, X F Wang, Z W Quan, W Gong
Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery] 2021 January 1, 59 (1): 24-31
Objective: To investigate the pathogens' distribution and antimicrobial resistance in the bile of acute biliary tract infection patients. Methods: The data of bile bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test of 223 acute biliary tract infection patients who underwent gallbladder puncture or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography drainage from July 2009 to July 2019 were analyzed retrospectively at Department of General Surgery,Xinhua Hospital,Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine.There were 141 males and 82 females with age of 67.3 years(range:28 to 93 years).Three to five milliliter of bile was extracted from each patient and sent to the laboratory for bacterial culture,identification and drug sensitivity test.The patients were divided into two groups according to the visiting time: the former group ( n =124) was admitted from July 2009 to July 2014,and the latter group( n =99) was admitted from August 2014 to July 2019.The distribution of pathogenic bacteria and the changing trend of drug resistance rate of common bacteria in the two groups were compared.The results of drug sensitivity test were analyzed by WHONET software provided by WHO bacterial surveillance network.The drug resistance rates in different time periods were compared by χ2 test. Results: In this study,there were 147 cases of acute cholangitis and 76 cases of acute cholecystitis.A total of 376 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured.Among them,98 strains(26.1%) were gram-positive bacteria,269 strains(71.5%) were gram-negative bacteria and 9 strains(2.4%) were fungi.The top three gram-positive bacteria were Enterococcus faecium (49.0%,48/98), Enterococcus faecalis (20.4%,20/98),and Enterococcus luteus (7.1%,7/98).The top 5 gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli (33.5%,90/269), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.8%,37/269), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.0%,35/269), Acinetobacter baumannii (12.6%,34/269),and Enterobacter cloacae (4.8%,13/269).From 2009 to 2019,there was no significant change in the proportion of gram-positive bacteria (former group vs. latter group: 25.3% vs. 28.2%) and gram-negative bacteria(former group vs. latter group: 74.7% vs. 71.8%) in the bile of patients with acute biliary tract infection.Gram-positive bacteria were mainly Enterococci (85.7%,84/98) and gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli (33.5%,90/269). Acinetobacter baumannii accounted for 7.8%(11/142) of gram-negative bacteria in the former group and 18.1%(23/127) in the latter group,an increase of 10.3% over previous five years. Pseudomonas aeruginosa had a downward trend,16.9% in the former group(24/142) and 8.7% in the latter group (11/127),the proportion decreased by 8.2%,and the other changes were not significant.The drug resistance rates of common gram-positive bacteria were relatively stable,and the drug resistance rates of Enterococcus faecium to many antibiotics were higher than those of Enterococcus faecalis .The resistance rates of gram-negative bacteria to most antibiotics showed an upward trend,among which Klebsiella pneumoniae showed an upward trend to most of antibiotics(former group: 0/15-4/13, latter group: 55.0%-70.0%; χ2 =3.996-16.942, P =0.000-0.046).The drug resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii was generally higher,but there were no significant changes in the drug resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii between the two groups.The drug resistance rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to most antibiotics increased,and the overall drug resistance rates of Escherichia coli were stable and showed a slight upward trend. Conclusions: The main pathogens in bile of patients with acute biliary tract infection are gram-negative bacteria.The constituent ratio of various gram-negative bacteria had no significant change from 2009 to 2019,but the drug resistance rates shows an upward trend.Among the gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli is the most important pathogen,and the proportion has no significant change.The proportion of Acinetobacter baumannii in the former group was significantly higher than that in the former group.And the proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a decreased trend.

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