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Prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD) among the general population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five main electronic databases and three grey literature were searched to identify observational studies in which TMJD was diagnosed using the research diagnostic criteria (RDC/TMD) or diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD). The studies were blindly selected by two reviewers based on eligibility criteria. Risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist, and the "R" Statistics software was used to perform meta-analyses.

RESULTS: From 2741 articles, 21 were included. Ten studies were judged at low RoB, seven at moderate, and four at high. The TMJD investigated were as follows: arthralgia, disk displacement (DDs) with reduction (DDwR), DDwR with intermittent locking, DDs without reduction (DDwoR) with limited opening, DDwoR without limited opening, degenerative joint disease (DJD), osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis, and subluxation. The main results from prevalence overall meta-analyses for adults/elderly are as follows: TMJD (31.1%), DDs (19.1%), and DJD (9.8%). Furthermore, for children/adolescents are as follows: TMJD (11.3%), DDs (8.3%), and DJD (0.4%). Considering the individual diagnosis meta-analyses, the most prevalent TMJD is DDwR for adults/elderly (25.9%) and children/adolescents (7.4%).

CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of TMJD was approximately 31% for adults/elderly and 11% for children/adolescents, and the most prevalent TMJD was DDwR.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge about the frequency of TMJD can encourage dentists to consider appropriate strategies for early and correct diagnosis and, if need be, correct management.

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