The Impact of Observation Versus Parathyroidectomy on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk Determined by FRAX Tool in Patients With Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Rahim Khan, James Martin, Gautam Das
Journal of Clinical Densitometry 2020 December 15
To study impact of observation (OBV) vs parathyroidectomy (PTX) on biochemistry, bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk calculated by Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) tool in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Retrospective study of 60 patients (OBV - 26; PTX - 34 patients). Mean adjusted calcium improved in both groups [OBV - 2.76 ± 0.07 vs 2.51 ± 0.20 mmol/L; p < 0.00001, PTX - 2.87 ± 0.21 vs 2.36 ± 0.12 mmol/L; p < 0.00001]. Mean parathyroid hormone level declined in both but more in PTX group [OBV - 11.4 ± 5.2 vs. 9.7 ± 5.6 pmol/L; p = 0.04, PTX - 14.3 ± 8.2 vs 4.6 ± 2.2 pmol/L; p < 0.00001]. In OBV group, BMD and T scores declined at all sites. Mean percentage change of BMD was -5.8 % at femoral neck (FN), -4.9 % at total hip (TH), -6.2 % at lumbar spine (LS) and -10.0 % at lower 1/3rd radius (LR). PTX led to stabilization of BMD at FN (3.0 %), TH (-0.6 %) and LS (2.2 %) but significant improvement at LR (13.9 %; p = 0.0005). In OBV group, 10 year risk of hip fracture (HF) (7.5 ± 9.0 % vs. 8.6 ± 9.0; p = 0.01) and major osteoporotic fracture (OF) (16.6 ± 10.9 % vs 18.3 ± 10.8 %; p = 0.002) worsened with time whereas in PTX group, risk of both type of fractures remained stable (HF; p = 0.48 and OF; p = 0.43). Comparison between groups showed greater improvement in median % change of fracture risk for both HF and OF in PTX group. OBV in PHPT lead to greater decline in BMD at all skeletal sites and imparted significant risk of HF and major OF. PTX offered stabilization of BMD at most sites but improvement at LR with unchanged fracture risk. FRAX tool should be used more frequently and universally.

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