JOURNAL ARTICLE
META-ANALYSIS
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
REVIEW
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
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Prevalence of interstitial lung disease in polymyositis and dermatomyositis: A meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020.

OBJECTIVE: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most important prognostic factor for mortality in patients with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM), but the prevalence of ILD in PM/DM may vary between countries. The aim of this study was to determine the overall prevalence of ILD in global patients with PM/DM.

METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of studies published from Jan 1, 2000 to April 30, 2020 on ILD and PM/DM. We extracted data and pooled the prevalence by using a random-effect model due to high heterogeneity. Heterogeneity was assessed by subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 34 studies with 10,130 patients were included in our meta-analysis. Pooled data demonstrated that the global prevalence of ILD in patients with PM/DM was 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.48). However, this prevalence varied with geographical locations and time trends. The prevalence of ILD in PM/DM was 0.5 (95% CI 0.42-0.57) in Asia, 0.23 (95% CI 0.15-0.31) in America, and 0.26 (95% CI 0.18-0.34) in Europe. A higher prevalence of ILD was reported in studies published in 2011-2015 (0.43, 95% CI 0.34-0.52) and 2016-2020 (0.45, 95% CI 0.35-0.54), compared with those published in 2000-2010 (0.27, 95% CI 0.16-0.39). The pooled prevalence of ILD in patients with DM, PM, and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis subtype was 0.42 (95% CI 0.35-0.49), 0.35 (95% CI 0.27-0.42), and 0.53 (95% CI 0.32-0.74), respectively. Patients with anti-Jo-1 and anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibodies were more likely to develop ILD than other myositis-specific autoantibodies.

CONCLUSION: The global prevalence of ILD in patients with PM/DM was approximately 41% and the condition was predominant in Asians. This highlights potential genetic and environmental differences in the pathogenesis of ILD in patients with PM/DM. More studies are required to elucidate the specific associations.

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