Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
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Pharmacological profile and effects of mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma.

Mitotane is the only adrenolytic drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). This drug has cytotoxic effects on tumour tissues; it induces cell death and antisecretory effects on adrenal cells by inhibiting the synthesis of adrenocortical steroids, which are involved in the pathogenesis of ACC. However, high doses of mitotane are usually necessary to reach the therapeutic plasma concentration, which may result in several adverse effects. This suggests that important pharmacological processes, such as first pass metabolism, tissue accumulation and extensive time for drug elimination, are associated with mitotane administration. Few studies have reported the pharmacological aspects and therapeutic effects of mitotane. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize the chemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and therapeutic and toxic effects of mitotane. This review also discusses new perspectives of mitotane formulation that are currently under investigation. Understanding the pharmacological profile of mitotane can improve the monitoring and efficacy of this drug in ACC treatment and can provide useful information for the development of new drugs with specific action against ACC with fewer adverse effects.

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