JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Vascular emergencies in neuro-ophthalmology

Eugenia Raluca Iorga, Dănuț Costin
Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology 2020, 64 (4): 323-332
33367170
The cerebral vascularization is assured by the 2 internal carotids and 2 vertebral arteries, and the Willis circle. Carotid artery obstruction is the most common abnormality associated with ocular ischemic syndrome. Obstruction may be due to atheromatous plaque, external compression, arteritis, or dissection of the artery. An atheromatous lesion of the carotid artery is the most frequent lesion responsible for ocular ischemic syndrome. The signs and symptoms of ocular ischemic syndrome are associated with severe hypoperfusion of the eye. Inflammatory lesions of the carotid artery are responsible for decreased flow in the carotid system. Other vascular emergencies are carotid artery dissection, Horton arteritis, aneurysms and carotid-cavernous fistula. The most common ocular signs and symptoms are transient monocular blindness, persistent monocular blindness, ocular ischemia, Claude Bernard Horner syndrome and oculomotor palsies. The carotid pathology can be a life-threatening pathology and it is important to recognize all these signs and symptoms. A multi-specialty approach will prevent misdiagnosis and lead to a better patient management. Abbreviations: OIS = ocular ischemic syndrome, TMB = transient monocular blindness, TIA = transient ischemic attack, ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP = C reactive protein, NVE = neovascularization elsewhere in the retina, NVD = neovascularization on the disc, AION A = anterior ischemic arteritic optic neuropathy, CBH = Claude Bernard Horner syndrome, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.

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