Roseville Protocol for the Management of Febrile Infants 7-60 Days

Tran H P Nguyen, Beverly R Young, Laura E Poggel, Amy Alabaster, Tara L Greenhow
Hospital Pediatrics 2020 December 17

OBJECTIVES: The Roseville Protocol modifies the Rochester Protocol by adding a high-risk temperature criterion of >38.5°C for infants 7 to 28 days old and by allowing febrile infants 29 to 60 days old with abnormal urinalysis but reassuring complete blood cell counts to be discharged home on oral antibiotics without receiving a lumbar puncture (LP). In this study, we define the Roseville Protocol test characteristics to detect invasive bacterial infection (IBI) and retrospectively compare its performance to that of the Rochester, Philadelphia, and Boston protocols.

METHODS: In this retrospective study, we examine all cases of fever in infants aged 7 to 60 days presenting to a large health maintenance organization from 2007 to 2016 and having requisite laboratory tests for protocol analysis. The 4 protocols were retrospectively applied to this cohort to calculate each protocol's sensitivity and specificity to detect IBI. Protocols were compared regarding recommended LPs, admissions, and parenteral antibiotics.

RESULTS: In 627 infants 7 to 28 days old, the Roseville Protocol had a sensitivity of 96.7% and a negative predictive value of 99.5%. It identified 2 IBIs missed by the Rochester Protocol but recommended an absolute increase of 19% in LPs and admissions. In 1176 infants 29 to 60 days old, the Roseville Protocol had a sensitivity of 91.4% and a negative predictive value of 99.6%. There was an absolute reduction in LPs by 18% to 44% compared to the Rochester Protocol and by 74% to 100% compared to the Philadelphia and Boston protocols. There was an absolute reduction in admissions by 18% to 44% compared to the Rochester Protocol, by 25% to 51% compared to the Philadelphia Protocol, and by 10% to 36% compared to the Boston Protocol.

CONCLUSIONS: The Roseville Protocol has sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of existing protocols for IBI in febrile infants 7 to 60 days old, while allowing for fewer invasive procedures and hospitalizations in infants ≥29 days old.

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