Intraoperative near-infrared imaging of parathyroid glands: A comparison of first- and second-generation technologies

Serkan Akbulut, Ozgun Erten, Mehmet Gokceimam, Yoo S Kim, Vikram Krishnamurthy, Katherine Heiden, Judy Jin, Allan Siperstein, Eren Berber
Journal of Surgical Oncology 2020 December 17

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative near-infrared imaging (NIFI) of parathyroid glands (PG) by first-generation technology had limited image quality and depth penetration. Second-generation NIFI has recently been introduced. Our aim was to compare (1) capability to detect PG and (2) image quality between older and newer technologies.

METHODS: Accurately detecting PG, as well as, quality of autofluorescence (AF) was compared between an older charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a newer complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS). χ2 , t test, and analysis of variance were used for analysis.

RESULTS: There were 300 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy (PTX) and/or thyroidectomy (THY) with NIFI, 200 with CCD, and 100 with CMOS. Although both NIFI technologies detected >94% of PG, CMOS was superior to CCD. Comparing AF quality, mean pixel intensity of PG compared with the background was higher with CMOS compared with CCD. When comparing PG detected by NIFI before visual identification by a surgeon, both CCD and CMOS had similar results (25% vs. 22%; p = .3).

CONCLUSION: Both NIFI cameras were excellent at detecting PG. Second-generation NIFI (CMOS) displayed higher detection rates and AF intensity. Although surgeons identified majority of PG before NIFI detection, 25% of PG were identified with NIFI first, suggesting future advancements of this technology may expand its applications during parathyroid/thyroid operations.

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