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Intoxications from the seas: ciguatera, scombroid, and paralytic shellfish poisoning.

Sporadic cases and outbreaks of intoxications borne by fish and shellfish have increased in frequency during recent years. Ciguatera, scombroid, and paralytic shellfish poisoning account for nearly 16 per cent of all reported foodborne outbreaks of disease in the United States. Fishborne ciguatera and paralytic shellfish poisoning are characterized by gastrointestinal and neuromuscular manifestations attributable to toxins of dinoflagellates. These toxins impair sodium transport in cell membranes. Treatment is primarily supportive. Scombroid fish intoxication resembles histamine poisoning and may be treated effectively with antihistamines or cimetidine. Prevention of these intoxications at present depends upon avoidance of potential vectors.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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