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Frozen shoulder: overview of clinical presentation and review of the current evidence base for management strategies.

Future Science OA 2020 October 31
Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (ACS) is a condition with significant clinical and economic implications. The etiology of adhesive capsulitis is not clearly understood and there remains lack of consensus in clinical management for this condition. It can occur as a primary idiopathic condition or secondary to medical conditions or trauma. The hallmarks of ACS are pain and stiffness, caused by formation of adhesive or scar tissue in the glenohumeral joint. Management strategies vary depending on stage of presentation, patient factors and clinician preferences, and can range from conservative options to surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to summarize the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of ACS and to discuss the evidence base for various management strategies employed today.

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