American College of Rheumatology Clinical Guidance for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated With SARS-CoV-2 and Hyperinflammation in Pediatric COVID-19: Version 2

Lauren A Henderson, Scott W Canna, Kevin G Friedman, Mark Gorelik, Sivia K Lapidus, Hamid Bassiri, Edward M Behrens, Anne Ferris, Kate F Kernan, Grant S Schulert, Philip Seo, Mary Beth F Son, Adriana H Tremoulet, Rae S M Yeung, Amy S Mudano, Amy S Turner, David R Karp, Jay J Mehta
Arthritis & Rheumatology 2021, 73 (4): e13-e29

OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on the management of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a condition characterized by fever, inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction that manifests late in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Recommendations are also provided for children with hyperinflammation during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the acute, infectious phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

METHODS: The Task Force was composed of 9 pediatric rheumatologists and 2 adult rheumatologists, 2 pediatric cardiologists, 2 pediatric infectious disease specialists, and 1 pediatric critical care physician. Preliminary statements addressing clinical questions related to MIS-C and hyperinflammation in COVID-19 were developed based on evidence reports. Consensus was built through a modified Delphi process that involved anonymous voting and webinar discussion. A 9-point scale was used to determine the appropriateness of each statement (median scores of 1-3 for inappropriate, 4-6 for uncertain, and 7-9 for appropriate). Consensus was rated as low, moderate, or high based on dispersion of the votes. Approved guidance statements were those that were classified as appropriate with moderate or high levels of consensus, which were prespecified before voting.

RESULTS: The first version of the guidance was approved in June 2020, and consisted of 40 final guidance statements accompanied by a flow diagram depicting the diagnostic pathway for MIS-C. The document was revised in November 2020, and a new flow diagram with recommendations for initial immunomodulatory treatment of MIS-C was added.

CONCLUSION: Our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-related syndromes in the pediatric population continues to evolve. This guidance document reflects currently available evidence coupled with expert opinion, and will be revised as further evidence becomes available.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"