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Epidemiology of bone metastases.

Bone 2020 December 2
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the incidence of de novo bone metastasis across all primary cancer sites and their impact on survival by primary cancer site, age, race, and sex.

QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Our objectives were (I) characterize the epidemiology of de novo bone metastasis with respect to patient demographics, (II) characterize the incidence by primary site, age, and sex (2010-2015), and (III) compare survival of de novo metastatic cancer patients with and without bone metastasis.

METHODS: This is a retrospective, population-based study using nationally representative data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, 2010-2015. Incidence rates by year of diagnosis, annual percentage changes, Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multiple Cox regression models are included in the analysis.

RESULTS: Of patients with cancer in the SEER database, 5.1% were diagnosed with metastasis to bone, equaling ~18.8 per 100,000 bone metastasis diagnoses in the US per year (2010-2015). For adults >25, lung cancer is the most common primary site (2015 rate: 8.7 per 100,000) with de novo bone metastases, then prostate and breast primaries (2015 rates: 3.19 and 2.38 per 100,000, respectively). For patients <20 years old, endocrine cancers and soft tissue sarcomas are the most common primaries. Incidence is increasing for prostate (Annual Percentage Change (APC) = 4.6%, P < 0.001) and stomach (APC = 5.0%, P = 0.001) cancers. The presence of de novo bone metastasis was associated with a limited reduction in overall survival (HR = 1.02, 95%, CI = [1.01-1.03], p < 0.001) when compared to patients with other non-bone metastases.

CONCLUSION: The presence of bone metastasis versus metastasis to other sites has disease site-specific impact on survival. The incidence of de novo bone metastasis varies by age, sex, and primary disease site.

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