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Maternal Health in the Transgender Population.

Social acceptance and legal protections for transgender and gender nonconforming patients have increased over the past decade, but significant health care disparities still remain. Such an area of disparity is discussion with and interventions for fertility, contraception, pregnancy, and lactation in TGNC patients. Providing optimal care starts with creating a welcoming and safe environment. Appropriate preconception education includes the effects of gender-affirming therapies (both surgical and nonsurgical) on fertility as well the fertility preservation techniques that are available. However, as gamete retrieval requires natal hormone stimulation, gender dysphoria may be worsened. Thus, these patients should be carefully monitored not only medically, but also with regard to their mental health. In addition to assisted reproductive technologies, protocols exist to aid with induction of lactation as well as discontinuation if desired. As this is a growing field of medicine with limited data available on safety and long-term outcomes, recommendations are for a multidisciplinary team approach to ensure patients' safety and well-being.

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