Prediction of postnatal outcome in fetuses with congenital lung malformation: 2-year follow-up study

N C J Peters, A Hijkoop, S M Hermelijn, M M van Schoonhoven, A J Eggink, J van Rosmalen, S C M Cochius-den Otter, D Tibboel, H IJsselstijn, J M Schnater, T E Cohen-Overbeek
Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 2021, 58 (3): 428-438

OBJECTIVES: To identify, in fetuses with a congenital lung malformation (CLM), prenatal predictors of the need for postnatal respiratory support and the need for surgery by calculating the CLM volume ratio (CVR), and to evaluate the concordance between the prenatal appearance and the postnatal type of CLM.

METHODS: This was an analysis of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal data from fetuses diagnosed with a CLM at the Erasmus University Medical Center - Sophia Children's Hospital in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, between January 2007 and December 2016. For all included fetuses, CVR was measured retrospectively on stored ultrasound images obtained at 18 + 1 to 24 + 6 weeks (US1), 25 + 0 to 29 + 6 weeks (US2) and/or 30 + 0 to 35 + 6 weeks' gestation (US3). Postnatal diagnosis of CLM was based on computed tomography or histology. Primary outcomes were the need for respiratory support within 24 h and surgery within 2 years after birth.

RESULTS: Of the 80 fetuses with a CLM included in this study, 14 (18%) required respiratory support on the first postnatal day, and 17 (21%) required surgery within 2 years. Only the CVR at US2 was predictive of the need for respiratory support, with a cut-off value of 0.39. Four of 16 (25%) fetuses which showed full regression of the CLM prenatally required respiratory support within 24 h after birth. The CVR at US1, US2 and US3 was predictive of surgery within 2 years. Overall, the prenatal appearance of the CLM showed low concordance with the postnatal type. Prenatally suspected microcystic congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) was shown on computed tomography after birth to be congenital lobar overinflation in 15/35 (43%) cases. Respiratory support within 24 h after birth and surgical resection within 28 days after birth were needed in all cases of macrocystic CPAM.

CONCLUSIONS: CVR can predict the need for respiratory support within 24 h after birth and for surgery within 2 years. Regression of a CLM prenatally does not rule out respiratory problems after birth. © 2020 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. - Legal Statement: This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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