Raynaud's phenomenon

Ashraful Haque, Michael Hughes
Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London 2020, 20 (6): 580-587
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a common vasospastic condition which affects ~5% of the general population. The majority of individuals have primary RP; however, Raynaud's can also occur secondary to a broad range of underlying medical conditions and drug therapies. RP is a cardinal feature in patients with systemic sclerosis and is often the earliest symptom of the disease. Unlike primary RP, patients with secondary RP can develop persistent digital ischaemia, including ulcers and gangrene. Patients require a comprehensive clinical assessment and investigation, in particular, the detection of autoantibodies and nailfold capillaroscopic abnormalities. Non-pharmacological management is indicated in all patients. There are a wide range of available drug therapies to treat RP, including when complicated by digital ulceration, and surgical intervention is sometimes required. Future research is needed to understand the complex pathogenesis of RP and to measure the impact and severity of RP to develop optimised approaches to management.

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