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Genomic insights into Brucella.

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by certain species of Brucella. Each species has its preferred host animal, though it can infect other animals too. For a longer period, only six classical species were recognized in the genus Brucella. No vaccine is available for human brucellosis. Therefore, human brucellosis can be controlled only by controlling brucellosis in animals. The genus is now expanding with the newly isolated atypical strains from various animals, including marine mammals. Presently, 12 species of Brucella have been recognized. The first genome of Brucella was released in 2002, and today, we have more than 1500 genomes of Brucella spp. isolated worldwide. Multiple genome sequences are available for the major zoonotic species, B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. The Brucella genome has two chromosomes with the approximate sizes of 2.1 and 1.2 Mbp. The genome of Brucella is highly conserved across all the species at the nucleotide level. One of the unanswered questions is what makes host preference in different species of Brucella. Here, I summarize the recent advancements in the Brucella genomics research.

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