Practice Recommendations for Diagnosis and Treatment of the Most Common Forms of Secondary Hypertension

Gian Paolo Rossi, Valeria Bisogni, Giacomo Rossitto, Giuseppe Maiolino, Maurizio Cesari, Rui Zhu, Teresa Maria Seccia
High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension 2020, 27 (6): 547-560
The vast majority of hypertensive patients are never sought for a cause of their high blood pressure, i.e. for a 'secondary' form of arterial hypertension. This under detection explains why only a tiny percentage of hypertensive patients are ultimately diagnosed with a secondary form of arterial hypertension. The prevalence of these forms is, therefore, markedly underestimated, although, they can involve as many as one-third of the cases among referred patients and up to half of those with difficult to treat hypertension. The early detection of a secondary form is crucial, because if diagnosed in a timely manner, these forms can be cured at long-term, and even when cure cannot be achieved, their diagnosis provides a better control of high blood pressure, and allows prevention of hypertension-mediated organ damage, and related cardiovascular complications. Enormous progress has been made in the understanding, diagnostic work-up, and management of secondary hypertension in the last decades. The aim of this minireview is, therefore, to provide updated concise information on the screening, diagnosis, and management of the most common forms, including primary aldosteronism, renovascular hypertension, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, Cushing's syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea.

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