JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
REVIEW
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Microbiome modulation as a novel therapeutic approach in chronic kidney disease.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gut dysbiosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interventions aimed at restoring gut microbiota have emerged as a potential therapeutic option in CKD. This review summarizes the current evidence on gut microbiota-targeted strategies in patients with CKD.

RECENT FINDINGS: A growing number of studies have shown that plant-based diets, low-protein diets, prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation, and constipation treatment may lead to favorable alterations in the gut microbiota. Current evidence suggests that the implementation of both plant-based and low-protein diets has potential benefits for the primary prevention of CKD, and for slowing CKD progression, with minimal risk of hyperkalemia and/or cachexia. The use of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics and laxatives may have beneficial effects on uremic toxin generation, but their evidence is limited for the prevention and treatment of CKD. Recent advances in diagnostic technologies (e.g., high-throughput sequencing and nanotechnology) could enhance rapid diagnosis, monitoring, and design of effective therapeutic strategies for mitigating gut dysbiosis in CKD.

SUMMARY: Plant-based and low-protein diets, prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation, and constipation treatment represent novel gut microbiota-targeted strategies in the conservative management of CKD, which could improve clinical outcomes in CKD.

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