Wild black rats (Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758) as zoomonitor of genotoxicity and systemic toxicity induced by hazardous emissions from Abule Egba unsanitary landfill, Lagos, Nigeria

Chibuisi G Alimba, Olusoji O Adewumi, Olufisayo M Binuyo, Peter G C Odeigah
Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 2020 October 24
Wild black rats (Rattus rattus) inhabiting Abule Egba landfill (AEL) were used as zoomonitor to assess health risk associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals from landfills. Twenty five R. rattus (16♂ and 9♀) captured within AEL and 15 (9♂ and 6♀) (control) caught from Iyano Ipaja (10 km away from AEL) were examined for bone marrow micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) and polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio, abnormal sperm morphology, alterations in hematological indices and erythrocyte morphology, and histopathology of the viscera using standard protocols. There was significant (p < 0.05) increase in MNPCE but decrease PCE/NCE ratio in bone marrow cells of exposed rats than the reference site. MNPCE was insignificantly higher in male than females. Cauda epididymal sperms from exposed rats showed significant high frequency of teratozoospermia. Erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentrations, percentage hematocrits, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, leucocyte count, and lymphocytes decreased while mean corpuscular volume, neutrophils, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin increased in the exposed rats compared to the control. Also, abnormal erythrocyte morphology: acanthocytes, codocytes (target cells), schizocytes, and tear drops significantly increased in the exposed rats. Marginal sexual dimorphism was observed between males and females in the incidence of hematological indices. Histopathological lesions including interstitial edema, hemorrhage, lymphoid depletion, cellular infiltrations, proliferation of the alveolar pneumocytes, necrosis, tissue degeneration, and reduced germinal epithelium were observed in the testes, liver, lungs, heart, kidney, and spleen from the exposed rats compared to the control. Some physicochemicals and metals analyzed in leachates from the landfill are capable of inducing genome instability and systemic toxicity in the exposed rats. Rattus rattus exposed to hazardous chemicals from AEL harbored somatic and germ cell mutations, and tissue damage compared to the control rats. We suggest that R. rattus are useful sentinel for genotoxicity and system toxicity assessment of landfill-polluted sites.Graphical abstract.

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