Micronutrient deficiencies in pediatric short bowel syndrome: a 10-year review from an intestinal rehabilitation center in China

Haixia Feng, Tian Zhang, Weihui Yan, Lina Lu, Yijng Tao, Wei Cai, Ying Wang
Pediatric Surgery International 2020 October 24

PURPOSE: Vitamins and trace elements are essential nutrients for growth and intestinal adaptation in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). This study aimed to assess micronutrients' status during and after weaning off PN in pediatric SBS.

METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the follow-up of 31 children with SBS between Jan 2010 and Sep 2019. Clinical data were reviewed from the patients' electric medical record. Serum electrolytes, trace elements, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and folate concentrations were collected before and after enteral autonomy.

RESULTS: Thirty-one SBS cases were reviewed (median onset age 11 days after birth, 51.6% boys, mean PN duration 4 months, and mean residual small intestine length 58.2 cm). Median duration of follow-up was 10 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 4, 19). The common micronutrient deficiencies were zinc (51.6%), copper (38.7%), vitamin D (32.3%), and phosphorus (25.8%) after the transition to EN. The proportion of patients deficient in vitamin D decreased dramatically from 93.5% to 32.3% (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of vitamin D increased significantly (27.4 ± 12.3 vs. 60.3 ± 32.9 nmol/l, P = 0.03) after achieving full enteral feeding more than 1 month. Additionally, serum magnesium levels significantly increased (0.76 ± 0.17 vs. 0.88 ± 0.14 mmol/l, P = 0.03). Hemoglobin levels elevated significantly after weaning off PN (104.3 ± 10.7 vs. 117.8 ± 13.7 g/l, P = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient deficiencies remain a common problem in pediatric SBS through intestinal rehabilitation. Therefore, we strongly recommend supplementation of more vitamin D and trace elements (zinc, copper, and phosphorus) under regular monitoring during long-term intestinal rehabilitation.

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