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Cholecystocutaneous fistula incidence, Etiology, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis and treatment. A literature review.

Cholecystocutaneous Fistula (CCF) is a type of external biliary fistula, which connects the gallbladder with the skin. Thilesus first described this phenomenon in 1670. There is usually a history of calculi in the gallbladder or neglected gallbladder disease. The incidence of CCF is rare, most patients are elderly females with the mean age of 72.8 years old. They usually present with chronic calculus cholecystitis or a history of a previous surgical intervention. US, CT, MRI, MRCP and (CT or X-ray) fistulogram are used to confirm the diagnosis. CT was more significant than US in identifying the track of the fistula and the fluid that runs throw it. CCF patients presented with systemic symptoms (fever, nausea and vomiting) or local symptoms. RUQ region is the most common site of external opening. Open cholecystectomy with excision of the fistulous tract is considered an acceptable option for treatment and it is curative in most cases. However, laparoscopic approach can be another option with experience surgeons.

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