Prediction of Neurocognitive Outcome after Moderate-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Using Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase and S100 biomarkers

Dana Slavoaca, Codruta Birle, Adina Stan, Alexandru Tatomir, Oana Popa, Paula Rosu, Ana-Maria Vulcan, Diana Chira, Livia Livint Popa, Constantin Dina, Vitalie Vacaras, Stefan Strilciuc, Pieter Vos
Journal of Medicine and Life 2020, 13 (3): 306-313
Seric biomarkers have been tested in a large number of studies on traumatic brain injuries (TBI) patients in order to predict severity, especially related to the short-term outcome. However, TBI patients have a high risk of developing long-term complications such as physical disability, cognitive impairment, psychiatric pathology, epilepsy, and others. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between protein biomarkers S100 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and neurocognitive status at 10- and 90-days post-injury. Both biomarkers were tested in the first 4h and after 72h post-injury in 62 patients with moderate-severe TBI. The patients were evaluated by a series of neurocognitive tests: Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE), The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Stroop Test, at 10 and 90 days post-injury and supplementary by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 90 days. For evaluating the whole neurocognitive status instead of every scale separately, we used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), while for anxiety and depressive symptoms, we used multiple regression analyses. SEM showed that NSE values at 4 hours were significant predictors of the cognitive status at 10 (p=0.034) and 90 days (p= 0.023). Also, there were found significant correlations between NSE at 4h and the anxiety level. This study demonstrated a significant correlation between NSE at 4h and short and medium-term neuropsychological outcomes, which recommends using this biomarker for selecting patients with a higher risk of cognitive dysfunction.

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