Eosinopenia in Patients With Typhoid Fever: A Case-Control Study.
Background and objectives Salmonella typhi is involved in one of the most prevalent infectious diseases of South East Asia, typhoid fever, but diagnostic tests cannot be performed regularly in developing countries. The objective of the study is to determine the association of eosinopenia with culture or serology-proven typhoid fever in patients, to determine the association of leukopenia with culture or serology-proven typhoid fever in patients and to determine independent predictors of eosinopenia. Methods This case-control study, done at Fauji Foundation Hospital, Pakistan, included patients with symptoms suggestive of typhoid fever, culture, or serology positive for typhoid fever and excluded patients who had been previously diagnosed with malaria and dengue hemorrhagic fever. After flagging cultures and serology, the records were viewed for leukocyte counts. Data, including age, gender, and clinical symptoms, were also recorded for analysis. Results Out of 200 participants, 59 participants with diagnosed typhoid fever had eosinopenia. There were 29 participants who had been diagnosed with typhoid fever via culture or serology and had leukopenia. Eosinopenia and leukopenia were more likely to be present in patients with a diagnosis of typhoid (OR: 9.60, 20.00). The independent predictors for eosinopenia were DOT enzyme immunoassay (DOT EIA) positive for Salmonella typhi, culture positive for Salmonella typhi and leukopenia (p<0.05). Conclusion The presence of eosinopenia and features or serology suggestive of typhoid would most likely be associated with cultures being positive and, therefore, might provide an efficient means to begin treatment.
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