First Case of Peroxisomal D-bifunctional Protein Deficiency with Novel HSD17B4 Mutations and Progressive Neuropathy in Korea

Eun Young Bae, Yoonyoung Yi, Han Hyuk Lim, Jiwon M Lee, Bongjin Lee, Seung Yeon Kim, Yoo Mi Kim
Journal of Korean Medical Science 2020 October 12, 35 (39): e357
Peroxisomal D-bifunctional protein (DBP), encoded by the HSD17B4 gene, catalyzes β-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). The deficiency of this peroxisomal enzyme leads to the accumulation of VLCFAs, causing multisystemic manifestations including the brain, retina, adrenal gland, hearing, and skeletal system. Herein, we report the first Korean neonatal case of peroxisomal DBP deficiency and the clinical prognosis over 2 years. This patient showed craniofacial dysmorphism, club foot, and seizures with cyanosis one day after birth. Elevated VLCFAs levels were indicative of a peroxisomal disorder. Targeted exome sequencing was performed and two missense mutations p.Asp117Val and p.Phe279Ser in the HSD17B4 gene were identified. The patient had type III DBP deficiency; therefore, docosahexaenoic acid and non-soluble vitamins were administered. However, progressive nystagmus, optic nerve atrophy, and bilateral hearing defects were observed and follow-up brain imaging revealed leukodystrophy and brain atrophy. Multiple anti-epileptic drugs were required to control the seizures. Over two years, the patient achieved normal growth with home ventilation and tube feeding. Hereby, the subject's parents had support during the second pregnancy from the proven molecular information. Moreover, targeted exome sequencing is an effective diagnostic approach, considering genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger spectrum disorders.

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