JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW
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Diagnosis and Management of Osteomyelitis in Children: A Critical Analysis Review.

JBJS Reviews 2020 June
The most common causative organism of pediatric osteomyelitis is Staphylococcus aureus, although, more recently, organisms such as Kingella kingae and methicillin-resistant S. aureus have been increasing in prevalence. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best diagnostic imaging modality for pediatric osteomyelitis given its high sensitivity and specificity. Most cases of early osteomyelitis without a drainable abscess can be adequately treated with a short course of intravenous antibiotics followed by at least 3 weeks of oral antibiotics. Surgical management of pediatric osteomyelitis is usually indicated in the presence of an abscess and/or failed treatment with antibiotic therapy. Clinical examination, fever, and C-reactive protein testing should be used to guide the conversion to oral antibiotics, the total antibiotic regimen duration, and the need for an additional debridement surgical procedure.

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