Perioperative Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Deepak Sharma
Anesthesiology 2020 September 28
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is an acute neurologic emergency. Prompt definitive treatment of the aneurysm by craniotomy and clipping or endovascular intervention with coils and/or stents is needed to prevent rebleeding. Extracranial manifestations of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage include cardiac dysfunction, neurogenic pulmonary edema, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and hyperglycemia. Data on the impact of anesthesia on long-term neurologic outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage do not exist. Perioperative management should therefore focus on optimizing systemic physiology, facilitating timely definitive treatment, and selecting an anesthetic technique based on patient characteristics, severity of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the planned intervention and monitoring. Anesthesiologists should be familiar with evoked potential monitoring, electroencephalographic burst suppression, temporary clipping, management of external ventricular drains, adenosine-induced cardiac standstill, and rapid ventricular pacing to effectively care for these patients.

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