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Imaging features of neonatal systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma: a case report and review of the literature.

Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is the most common non-Langerhans cell histiocytic disorder in children. This report describes the case of a 28-day-old boy that presented with multiple subcutaneous nodular lesions on the trunk and extremities, and multiple red nodular lesions on the scrotum. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a well-demarcated extra-axial dura-based mass that appeared isointense or slightly hyperintense on T1-weighted images, hypointense on T2-weighted images and had intense enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. Computed tomography (CT) or MRI scans of the chest and abdomen revealed multiple scattered nodular or patchy lesions of varying sizes in the lungs, liver and left kidney. Histological analysis of a subcutaneous mass suggested JXG. The patient was diagnosed with neonatal systemic JXG with involvement of the central nervous system, lungs, liver, kidneys, subcutaneous soft tissue and skin. CT and MRI after 3 months of treatment with methylprednisolone sodium succinate demonstrated that the lesions were obviously diminished. This report discusses the imaging findings in this current case of multi-organ JXG and reviews the imaging literature on this condition to improve awareness of the lesions in order to help radiologists establish an accurate differential diagnosis when confronted with similar cases.

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