Pathologies of the Peroneals: A Review.
Peroneal tendon disorders remain an often overlooked source of lateral hindfoot pain and tenderness. Medical professionals who specialize in foot and ankle care are still far more likely to diagnose a peroneal tendon disorder as an ankle injury. In fact, acute peroneal dislocations are misdiagnosed in up to 40% of cases. The major subsets of peroneal disorders include peroneal tendonitis and tenosynovitis, painful os peroneum syndrome, subluxation, and tearing of the peroneal tendons. Proper history and physical exam maneuvers must be performed to help identify the source of the injury and differentiate these categories. Detailed imaging through X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging must also be used to diagnose the etiology of the patient's condition in order to direct management. Currently, there is very limited knowledge on peroneal pathologies, and treatment protocol is highly variable and limited to expert opinion. Despite the individual preferences and nuances held by each surgeon when it comes to operating, the overarching principles that guide appropriate management of tendonitis, subluxation, and tendon tear should maintain a higher level of consistency. Therefore, the authors of this review aim to elucidate the most current methods to diagnose these disorders as well as evidence-based practices for optimal management. Levels of Evidence: Level V.
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