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High-Resolution Anoscopy Surveillance After Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Detection and Treatment May Influence Local Recurrence.

BACKGROUND: Local recurrence is a significant risk after anal squamous cell carcinoma.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the occurrence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and local recurrence after anal cancer at surveillance with high-resolution anoscopy.

DESIGN: This is a retrospective observational study.

SETTING: This study was conducted at an anogenital neoplasia referral center.

PATIENTS: There were 76 anal/perianal cancers from 1998 to 2018. Sixty-three patients were eligible and 3 were excluded, for a total of 60 patients; 35 of 60 (58%) patients were male.

INTERVENTION: High-resolution anoscopy after chemoradiation or excision only for anal squamous cell carcinoma was performed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were local recurrence and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion detection rates.

RESULTS: Sixty patients, 27% HIV positive, underwent surveillance over a median 42 (range 7-240) months of follow-up. Seven had had a prior local recurrence at study entry so were analyzed separately. Thirty of 53 underwent chemoradiation (57%) and 23 of 53 underwent excision alone (43%); 33 had perianal cancer and 20 had anal cancer. Ten of 30 of the chemoradiation group had had stage 1 (33%) disease in comparison with 22 of 23 of the excision only group (96%, p < 0.001).

OUTCOMES: High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were detected in 4 of 30 (13%) patients after chemoradiation and in 17 of 23 (74%) patients after excision only (p < 0.001). Twenty of 21 (95%) high-grade lesions were treated with ablation. Six of 7 (86%) patients with prior local recurrence had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions over a median of 21 months follow-up. One local recurrence (T1N0M0) occurred during surveillance after primary chemoradiation (0.56/1000 person-months), none occurred after excision only, and 2 of 7 with prior local recurrence developed further local recurrence (6.86/1000 person-months). All 3 local recurrences occurred after treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. There were no metastases, abdominoperineal excisions, or deaths from anal squamous cell carcinoma.

LIMITATIONS: Retrospective data were used for this study.

CONCLUSIONS: High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions after anal squamous cell carcinoma are more common after excision only than after chemoradiation. Local recurrence is low in this high-resolution anoscopy surveillance group in which high-grade squamous intraepithelial disease was ablated. Excision of small perianal cancers appears safe; however, a subset of patients is at excess risk. See Video Abstract at VIGILANCIA POR ANOSCOPÍA DE ALTA RESOLUCIÓN EN CASOS DE CARCINOMA ANAL A CÉLULAS ESCAMOSAS: LA DETECCIÓN Y TRATAMIENTO DE UNA LESIÓN INTRAEPITELIAL ESCAMOSA DE ALTO GRADO (HSIL) PUEDE INFLUIR EN LA RECURRENCIA LOCAL: La recurrencia local tiene un riesgo significativo después del carcinoma anal a células escamosas.Evaluar la aparición de lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado (HSIL) y su recurrencia local durante la vigilancia con anoscopía de alta resolución en casos de cancer anal.Estudio observacional retrospectivo.Centro de referencia de neoplasia anogenital.Se diagnosticaron 76 cánceres anales / perianales entre 1998 y 2018. Un total de 63 pacientes fueron elegidos, 3 excluidos (n = 60), 35/60 (58%) fueron varones.Anoscopía de alta resolución después de la quimio-radioterapia, o solo excisión en casos de carcinoma anal a células escamosas.Recurrencia local primaria y tasas de detección de lesión intraepitelial escamosa de alto grado.Sesenta pacientes, 27% VIH positivos, fueron sometidos a vigilancia durante una mediana de 42 (rango 7-240) meses de seguimiento. Siete habían tenido una recurrencia local antes de ser incluidos en el estudio, por lo que se analizaron por separado. Treinta de 53 se sometieron a quimio-radioterapia (57%) y 23/53 solo a excisión (43%). 33 eran lesiones perianales, 20 de canal anal. 10/30 del grupo de quimio-radioterpia se encontraban en Fase 1 (33%) comparados con 22/23 del grupo de excisión (96%, p <0.001).Se detectaron lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado en 4/30 (13%) después de la quimio-radioterapia, y en 17/23 (74%) solo después de la excisión (p < 0.001). 20/21 (95%) lesiones de alto grado fueron tratadas con ablación. Seis de siete (86%) con recurrencia local previa tenían lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado durante una mediana de seguimiento de 21 meses. Se produjo una recurrencia local (T1N0M0) durante la vigilancia después de la quimio-radioterapia primaria (0.56/1000 persona-meses), ninguna después de la excisión sola y 2/7 con recurrencia local previa desarrollaron una recurrencia local adicional (6.86/1000 persona-meses). Las 3 recidivas locales ocurrieron después del tratamiento de las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado. No hubieron metástasis, excisiones abdominoperineales o muertes por carcinoma anal a células escamosas.Datos retrospectivos.Las lesiones intraepiteliales escamosas de alto grado en casos de carcinoma escamocelular anal son más comunes después de la excisión sola que después de la quimio-radioterapia. La recurrencia local es baja en este grupo de vigilancia de anoscopía de alta resolución en el que se retiró la enfermedad intraepitelial escamosa de alto grado. La excisión de pequeños cánceres perianales parece segura; sin embargo, un subconjunto de pacientes tiene un riesgo excesivo. Consulte Video Resumen en (Traducción-Dr. Xavier Delgadillo).

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