Management of Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures Utilizing Intraoperative 3-Dimensional Imaging: The ZYGOMAS Protocol

Karl Cuddy, Eric J Dierks, Allen Cheng, Ashish Patel, Melissa Amundson, R Bryan Bell
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2020 August 27

PURPOSE: Utilization of technology to aid in the assessment, planning, and management of complex craniomaxillofacial injuries is increasingly common. Limited data exist regarding the implication of intraoperative CT/3-Dimensional imaging on decision making in the management of zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures. This study characterizes the utilization of the intraoperative CT scanner for ZMC fracture surgery and analyzes the impact of the intraoperative CT scanner on fracture management. Using these findings, we sought to propose an algorithm to guide the appropriate utilization of intraoperative 3-Dimensional imaging in ZMC fracture surgery.

METHODS: This retrospective case series evaluates the use of the intraoperative CT scanner for orbitozygomatic trauma surgery at a level 1 trauma center from February 2011 to September 2016. We evaluated the preoperative CT images assessing for the number of displaced sutures, the presence of adjacent fractures requiring fixation, the presence of comminution of the zygomaticomaxillary buttress or body of the zygoma, as well as the number of axes displaced ≥ 5 mm. This information was evaluated to provide guidance on the appropriate utilization of the intraoperative scanner in ZMC fracture management.

RESULTS: A total of 71 patients were identified to have intraoperative facial CT scans and surgery for ZMC fractures over the study time period. There was a 23.9% (17/71) CT directed revision rate. There was a significantly increased likelihood of CT directed revision for fractures with adjacent fractures requiring fixation, and those with ≥ 2 axes displaced ≥ 5 mm. Using these findings, we proposed the ZYGOMAS algorithm outlining the indications for use of intraoperative CT in management of ZMC fractures.

CONCLUSIONS: If available, intraoperative CT/3-Dimensional imaging should be utilized in the management of ZMC fractures with the requirement for orbital floor reconstruction, where adjacent fractures require fixation and/or when ≥ 2 axes are displaced ≥ 5 mm.

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