Stomatin is highly expressed in exosomes of different origin and is a promising candidate as an exosomal marker

Gleb O Skryabin, Andrei V Komelkov, Sergey A Galetsky, Dmitry V Bagrov, Evgeniy G Evtushenko, Igor I Nikishin, Kirill I Zhordaniia, Elizaveta E Savelyeva, Maria E Akselrod, Iulia G Paianidi, Elena M Tchevkina
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2020 September 20
Proteins involved in the organizing of lipid rafts can be found in exosomes, as shown for caveolin-1, and they could contribute to exosomal cargo sorting, as shown for flotillins. Stomatin belongs to the same stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C family of lipid rafts proteins, but it has never been studied in exosomes except for extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from blood cells. Here we first show the presence of stomatin in exosomes produced by epithelial cancer cells (non-small cell lung cancer, breast, and ovarian cancer cells) as well as in EVs from biological fluids, including blood plasma, ascitic fluids, and uterine flushings. A high abundance of stomatin in EVs of various origins and its enrichment in exosomes make stomatin a promising exosomal marker. Comparison with other lipid raft proteins and exosomal markers showed that the level of stomatin protein in exosomes from different sources corresponds well to that of CD9, while it differs essentially from flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 homologs, which in turn are present in exosomes in nearly equal proportions. In contrast, the level of vesicular caveolin-1 as well as its EV-to-cellular ratio vary drastically depending on cell type.

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