American Registry of Pathology Expert Opinions: Recommendations for the diagnostic workup of mature T cell neoplasms.
The diagnosis of T-cell lymphomas is highly challenging and requires an integrated approach in which clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic and molecular data are incorporated into the diagnosis. Under the auspices of the American Registry of Pathology, the authors met to discuss this topic with the goal to provide practical and useful recommendations for pathologists when evaluating T-cell lymphomas. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic findings and workup for the various types of nodal T-cell lymphoma including anaplastic large cell lymphoma, nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS), and PTCL with a T follicular helper (TFH) phenotype. We review clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic features (including flow cytometry panels) helpful in the differential diagnosis of mature T-cell lymphomas presenting in the peripheral blood and bone marrow, and we discuss some of the more common extranodal-based T-cell lymphomas including extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of nasal and non-nasal type, gamma delta T cell lymphomas, and aggressive and indolent T- and NK-lymphoproliferative disorders involving the gastrointestinal tract. Mycosis fungoides and most other cutaneous T-cell lymphomas are not the focus of this review, although the differential diagnosis of Sezary syndrome from mycosis fungoides is covered. We do not intend for these recommendations to be anything other than suggestions that will hopefully spur on additional discussion, and perhaps eventually evolve into a consensus approach for the workup of T-cell lymphomas.
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