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Shigella sonnei: virulence and antibiotic resistance.

Shigella sonnei is the emerging pathogen globally, as it is the second common infectious species of shigellosis (bloody diarrhoea) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the leading one in developed world. The multifactorial processes and novel mechanisms have been identified in S. sonnei, that are collectively playing apart a substantial role in increasing its prevalence, while replacing the S. flexneri and other Gram-negative gut pathogens niche occupancy. Recently, studies suggest that due to improvement in sanitation S. sonnei has reduced cross-immunization from Plesiomonas shigelliodes (having same O-antigen as S. sonnei) and also found to outcompete the two major species of Enterobacteriaceae family (Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli), due to encoding of type VI secretion system (T6SS). This review aimed to highlight S. sonnei as an emerging pathogen in the light of recent research with pondering aspects on its epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenic mechanisms. Additionally, this paper aimed to review S. sonnei disease pattern and related complications, symptoms, and laboratory diagnostic techniques. Furthermore, the available treatment reigns and antibiotic-resistance patterns of S. sonnei are also discussed, as the ciprofloxacin and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei has already intensified the global spread and burden of antimicrobial resistance. In last, prevention and controlling strategies are briefed to limit and tackle S. sonnei and possible future areas are also explored that needed more research to unravel the hidden mysteries surrounding S. sonnei.

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