JOURNAL ARTICLE

Vitamin D3-VDR-PTPN6 axis mediated autophagy contributes to the inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation

Sumit Kumar, Ravikanth Nanduri, Ella Bhagyaraj, Rashi Kalra, Nancy Ahuja, Anuja P Chacko, Drishti Tiwari, Kanupriya Sethi, Ankita Saini, Vemika Chandra, Monika Jain, Shalini Gupta, Deepak Bhatt, Pawan Gupta
Autophagy 2020 September 11
32917126
Macrophage derived foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques are the major factor responsible for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). During advanced AS, macrophage-specific macroautophagy/autophagy is dysfunctional. 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (VitD3) and its receptor VDR (vitamin D receptor) are reported to inhibit foam cell formation and induce autophagy; however, the role of VitD3-VDR-induced autophagy and foam cell formation in AS has not been explored. Here we find that VitD3 significantly recovered oxidized low-density lipoprotein-impaired autophagy, as well as increased autophagy-mediated lipid breakdown in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages, thus inhibiting the conversion of macrophages into foam cells. Importantly, VitD3 functions through its receptor VDR to upregulate autophagy and attenuate the accumulation of lipids in macrophages. Moreover, this study is the first occasion to report the interesting link between VitD3 signaling and PTPN6/SHP-1 (protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6) in macrophages. VitD3-induced autophagy was abrogated in the presence of the PTPN6 / Ptpn6 shRNA or inhibitor. VDR along with RXRA (retinoid X receptor alpha), and NCOA1 (nuclear receptor coactivator 1), are recruited to a specific response element located on the gene promoter and induce PTPN6 expression. PTPN6 contributes to VitD3-mediated autophagy by regulating autophagy-related genes via activation of MAPK1 (mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) and CEBPB (CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta). Furthermore, expression of PTPN6 is also crucial for VitD3-mediated inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation through autophagy. Thus, VitD3-VDR-PTPN6 axis-regulated autophagy attenuates foam cell formation in macrophages.

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