Enhanced Antiproliferative Effect of Combined Treatment with Calcitriol and All- Trans Retinoic Acid in Relation to Vitamin D Receptor and Retinoic Acid Receptor α Expression in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

Silvia Paukovcekova, Dalibor Valik, Jaroslav Sterba, Renata Veselska
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020 September 9, 21 (18)
The main objective of this study was to analyze changes in the antiproliferative effect of vitamin D3, in the form of calcitriol and calcidiol, via its combined application with all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in osteosarcoma cell lines. The response to treatment with calcitriol and calcidiol alone was specific for each cell line. Nevertheless, we observed an enhanced effect of combined treatment with ATRA and calcitriol in the majority of the cell lines. Although the levels of respective nuclear receptors did not correlate with the sensitivity of cells to these drugs, vitamin D receptor (VDR) upregulation induced by ATRA was found in cell lines that were the most sensitive to the combined treatment. In addition, all these cell lines showed high endogenous levels of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). Our study confirmed that the combination of calcitriol and ATRA can achieve enhanced antiproliferative effects in human osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro. Moreover, we provide the first evidence that ATRA is able to upregulate VDR expression in human osteosarcoma cells. According to our results, the endogenous levels of RARα and VDR could be used as a predictor of possible synergy between ATRA and calcitriol in osteosarcoma cells.

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