Entropy Analysis of RR-Time Series From Stress Tests

Eric E Solís-Montufar, Gonzalo Gálvez-Coyt, Alejandro Muñoz-Diosdado
Frontiers in Physiology 2020, 11: 981
The RR-interval time series or tachograms obtained from electrocardiograms have been widely studied since they reflect the cardiac variability, and this is an indicative of the health status of a person. The tachogram can be seen as a highly non-linear and complex time series, and therefore, should be analyzed with non-linear techniques. In this work, several entropy measures, Sample Entropy (SampEn), Approximate Entropy (ApEn), and Fuzzy Entropy (FuzzyEn) are used as a measure of heart rate variability (HRV). Tachograms belonging to thirty-nine subjects were obtained from a cardiac stress test consisting of a rest period followed by a period of moderate physical activity. Subjects are grouped according to their physical activity using the IPAQ sedentary and active questionnaire, we work with youth and middle-aged adults. The entropy measures for each group show that for the sedentary subjects the values are high at rest and decrease appreciably with moderate physical activity, This happens for both young and middle-aged adults. These results are highly reproducible. In the case of the subjects that exercise regularly, an increase in entropy is observed or they tend to retain the entropy value that they had at rest. It seems that there is a possible correlation between the physical condition of a person with the increase or decrease in entropy during moderate physical activity with respect to the entropy at rest. It was also observed that entropy during longer physical activity tests tends to decrease as fatigue accumulates, but this decrease is small compared to the change that occurs when going from rest to physical activity.

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