An Update on Maxillary Fractures: A Heterogenous Group

Jason E Cohn, Zachary Iezzi, Jordan J Licata, Sammy Othman, Seth Zwillenberg
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 2020 September 2

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to review the different types of maxillary fractures and highlight their diagnostic and therapeutic differences.

METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who sustained maxillary fractures was conducted through the Einstein Healthcare Network during the years 2016-2017. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were used to categorize continuous and categorical variables, respectively.

RESULTS: The cohort of patients (n = 141) were predominately African American (62%) and male (75%) with a mean age 45.3 years. The most common maxillary fracture was maxillary sinus (29%), followed by zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) (26%), frontal process (20%), dentoalveolar (16%), and LeFort (9%). Dentoalveolar fractures were mostly evaluated by the oral maxillofacial surgery service (74%), while ZMC and LeFort fractures were more commonly referred to an otolaryngologist (56% and 67%, respectively). Patients with dentoalveolar fractures were more likely to undergo wire splinting (61%). All patients with frontal process and maxillary sinus fractures were managed non-operatively. Most patients with ZMC fractures were managed non-operatively (78%) while the remainder underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) (22%). Patients with LeFort fractures more commonly underwent maxillomandibular fixation (MMF)/ORIF (83%). Dentoalveolar fractures were the most likely to be operated on the same day (93%) while ZMC and LeFort fractures were repaired within 1 week (88% and 100%, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Maxillary trauma is very heterogenous in comparison to other maxillofacial trauma patterns. Each fracture type is treated uniquely and can involve one or more provider teams depending on the extent and severity of the injury, as well as hospital resources.

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