Journal Article
Systematic Review
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes of lower extremity peripheral arterial interventions in patients with and without chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease.

OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a greater risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Although individual studies have documented an association between CKD and/or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and adverse outcomes in patients undergoing PAD interventions in an era of technological advances in peripheral revascularization, the magnitude of the effect size is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of PAD interventions for patients with CKD/ESRD with those patients with normal renal function, stratified by intervention type (endovascular vs surgical), reflecting contemporary practice.

METHODS: Five databases were analyzed from January 2000 to June 2019 for studies that had compared the outcomes of lower extremity PAD interventions for patients with CKD/ESRD vs normal renal function. We included both endovascular and open interventions, with an indication of either claudication or critical limb ischemia. We analyzed the pooled odds ratios (ORs) across studies with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random effects model. Funnel plot and exclusion sensitivity analyses were used for bias assessment.

RESULTS: Seventeen observational studies with 13,140 patients were included. All included studies, except for two, had accounted for unmeasured confounding using either multivariable regression analysis or case-control matching. The maximum follow-up period was 114 months (range, 0.5-114 months). The incidence of target lesion revascularization (TLR) was greater in those with CKD/ESRD than in those with normal renal function (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.25-2.27; P = .001). The incidence of major amputations (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.37-2.83; P < .001) and long-term mortality (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.45-3.58; P < .001) was greater in those with CKD/ESRD. The greater TLR rates with CKD/ESRD vs normal renal function were only seen with endovascular interventions, with no differences for surgical interventions. The differences in rates of major amputations and long-term mortality between the CKD/ESRD and normal renal function groups were statistically significant, regardless of the intervention type.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CKD/ESRD who have undergone lower extremity PAD interventions had worse outcomes than those of patients with normal renal function. When stratifying our results by intervention (endovascular vs open surgery), greater rates of TLR for CKD/ESRD were only seen with endovascular and not with open surgical approaches. Major amputations and all-cause mortality were greater in the CKD/ESRD group, irrespective of the indication. Evidence-based strategies to manage this at-risk population who require PAD interventions are essential.

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