Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation Using a 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Probe in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: Comparison Between Biplane View and Short-Axis View

Nagarjuna Panidapu, Saravana Babu, Thomas Koshy, Subin Sukesan, Prasanta Kumar Dash, Varghese T Panicker
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 2020 August 14

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical performance in terms of procedure time, success rate, and cannulation attempts between ultrasound biplane view (BPX) and short-axis (SAX) view for internal jugular vein cannulation (IJV) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

DESIGN: Prospective, observational pilot study.

SETTING: University level tertiary referral hospital.

PATIENTS: The study comprised 100 patients between ages 18 and 75 years undergoing elective cardiac surgery.

INTERVENTIONS: One hundred patients were divided into 2 groups of 50 (BPX group and SAX group) by assigning the study participants alternatively to each group. IJV cannulation was performed using a 3-dimensional ultrasound probe in all patients with either BPX view (BPX group, n = 50) or the SAX view (SAX group, n = 50) by an experienced anesthesiologist.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Time required for imaging, time for IJV puncture, time for guidewire confirmation, number of needle punctures and needle redirections, and incidence of posterior wall puncture were noted in both groups. In addition, the quality of needle visualization and the incidence of complications were recorded. The time taken for imaging was significantly greater in the BPX group than in the SAX group (9.52 ± 2.69 s v 7.94 ± 2.55 s; p = 0.0034), whereas the time taken for IJV puncture (10.39 ± 2.33 s v 23.7 ± 2.46 s; p < 0.0001), time taken for confirmation of guidewire (32.94 ± 4.50 s v 57.64 ± 7.14 s; p < 0.0001), and the incidence of posterior wall puncture (4% v 26%; p = 0.0022) were significantly less in the BPX group than in the SAX group. The total number of attempts taken to puncture the IJV was fewer in the BPX group than in the SAX group (55 v 78). Successful puncture of the IJV occurred on the first attempt in 90% of patients in the BPX group, whereas it was only 50% in the SAX group (p < 0.0001). The quality of needle visualization was good in 90% of patients in the BPX group, whereas it was only 6% in the SAX group. The number of needle redirections for IJV puncture was less in the BPX group than in the SAX group (48 v 116). The incidence of complications was not significant between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the BPX view may be a safer, feasible and more reliable method than the SAX view for IJV cannulation in cardiac surgical patients.

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