Osteogenic capacity of the sinus membrane following maxillary sinus augmentation procedures: A systematic review

Panagiotis Dragonas, Theodoros Katsaros, Julie Schiavo, Pablo Galindo-Moreno, Gustavo Avila-Ortiz
International journal of oral implantology 2020, 13 (3): 213-232

PURPOSE: The evidence pertaining to the contribution of the sinus membrane to new bone formation following maxillary sinus augmentation procedures is equivocal. The purpose of this study was to analyse the evidence currently available on the osteogenic capacity of the sinus membrane following maxillary sinus augmentation procedures, and the effect of local delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenic proteins (rhBMPs) on the bone-forming potential of the sinus membrane.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was conducted using six different databases to identify controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case series and case reports, as well as preclinical (animal) studies reporting on new bone formation in close proximity with the sinus membrane after maxillary sinus augmentation procedures, assessed through histological and/or histomorphometrical evaluation, on the basis of pre-established eligibility criteria.

RESULTS: No clinical studies were identified. Twenty-six preclinical studies were included in the review. Nine of them supported the osteogenic potential of the sinus membrane, while eight reported no evidence of osteogenicity from the sinus membrane. The nine remaining studies reported on the local effect of rhBMPs. The majority of these nine studies reported enhanced new bone formation in the sinus membrane region.

CONCLUSIONS: The sinus membrane contains pluripotent mesenchymal cells with the capacity to differentiate and participate in the process of new bone formation. However, the findings from the studies selected in this systematic review do not consistently support that the sinus membrane significantly contributes to new bone formation following maxillary sinus augmentation procedures.

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