Sex and Gender Disparities in the Management and Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction-Cardiogenic Shock in Older Adults

Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Saarwaani Vallabhajosyula, Shannon M Dunlay, Sharonne N Hayes, Patricia J M Best, Jorge A Brenes-Salazar, Amir Lerman, Bernard J Gersh, Allan S Jaffe, Malcolm R Bell, David R Holmes, Gregory W Barsness
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2020, 95 (9): 1916-1927

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes by sex in older adults with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CS).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of older (≥75 years) AMI-CS admissions during January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014, was identified using the National Inpatient Sample. Interhospital transfers were excluded. Use of angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), mechanical circulatory support (MCS), and noncardiac interventions was identified. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality stratified by sex, and secondary outcomes included temporal trends of prevalence, in-hospital mortality, use of cardiac and noncardiac interventions, hospitalization costs, and length of stay.

RESULTS: In this 15-year period, there were 134,501 AMI-CS admissions 75 years or older, of whom 51.5% (n=69,220) were women. Women were on average older, were more often Hispanic or nonwhite race, and had lower comorbidity, acute organ failure, and concomitant cardiac arrest. Compared with older men (n=65,281), older women (n=69,220) had lower use of coronary angiography (55.4% [n=35,905] vs 49.2% [n=33,918]), PCI (36.3% [n=23,501] vs 34.4% [n=23,535]), MCS (34.3% [n=22,391] vs 27.2% [n=18,689]), mechanical ventilation, and hemodialysis (all P<.001). Female sex was an independent predictor of higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.08; P<.001) and more frequent discharges to a skilled nursing facility. In subgroup analyses of ethnicity, presence of cardiac arrest, and those receiving PCI and MCS, female sex remained an independent predictor of increased mortality.

CONCLUSION: Female sex is an independent predictor of worse in-hospital outcomes in older adults with AMI-CS in the United States.

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