JOURNAL ARTICLE

Where are we moving in the classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies?

Jantima Tanboon, Akinori Uruha, Werner Stenzel, Ichizo Nishino
Current Opinion in Neurology 2020, 33 (5): 590-603
32852298

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discoveries of myositis-specific antibodies, transcriptomic signatures, and clinicoseropathological correlation support classification of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) into four major subgroups: dermatomyositis, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), and inclusion body myositis (IBM) whereas leaving polymyositis as a historical nonspecific diagnosis of exclusion. This review summarizes and comments on recent knowledge regarding the major subgroup of IIM.

RECENT FINDINGS: Type 1 interferon (IFN1) pathway activation is the most prominent in dermatomyositis whereas type 2 interferon (IFN2) pathway activation is high in IBM and ASS; neither pathway is distinct in IMNM. Myxovirus-resistant protein A, IFN1 surrogate marker, is now one of definite dermatomyositis muscle biopsy criteria in the new 2018 European Neuromuscular Centre classification of dermatomyositis; the classification emphasizes on different categorization with and without dermatomyositis-specific antibody result. Novel HLA loci associated with anti-TIF1-γ, anti-Mi-2, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies in Caucasian population are identified. Associations of chaperon-assisted selective autophagy (CASA) and complement-mediated autoimmunity in IMNM as well as highly differentiated T cells in IBM are discovered.

SUMMARY: Current IIM classification requires integrated clinicoseropathological approaches. Additional information, such as transcriptomics, HLA haplotyping, and potential biomarkers help tailoring categorization that may have future diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

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