Quality of Life and Dependence Degree of Chronic Patients in a Chronicity Care Model

Jesús Molina-Mula, Angélica Miguélez-Chamorro, Joana María Taltavull-Aparicio, Jerónima Miralles-Xamena, María Del Carmen Ortego-Mate
Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland) 2020 August 24, 8 (3)

BACKGROUND: The complex chronic patient is a person with one or several long-term diseases, the clinical management of which are considered difficult and related to cognitive or functional impairment. The chronicity care model deeply affects the quality of life and degree of dependence.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyse the perceived quality of life and dependence degree in complex chronic patients within a chronicity care model in the Autonomous Communities of Cantabria and the Balearic Islands (Spain).

DESIGN: This was a multicentred, transversal, descriptive, and observational study on a cohort of 206 chronic patients included in a chronicity care program.

METHODS: Patients' sociodemographic variables, integral valuation, nurse follow-up records, nursing outcomes classification (NOC)/nursing interventions classification (NIC), nurse diagnoses, and hospitalization data were analysed. A descriptive analysis of all data was carried out. The bivariate analysis assessed the relation between covariables and the overall scoring in European Quality of Life Scale (EuroQuol-5D), Barthel, Braden, and Chronic Patient eXperience Assessment Instrument (IEXPAC in the Spanish abbreviation). A multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted.

RESULTS: The mean age was 79.4 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.12; range: 39-94). A percentage of 79.3% of the study population shows functional impairment in one or more activities of daily life. A percentage of 83.3% of patients showed a physical dependence. There is a significant relationship between the gender and kinship degree of the caregiver (χ2 = 18.2; p = 0.001). An overall mean score of 55.38 points in EuroQuol-5D was obtained, along with a 36.87-point satisfaction with the care given in IEXPAC. The overall score correlated positively and significantly with Barthel, Braden, and IEXPAC. The dependence levels improved slightly in the observed patients, which was a very significant outcome in statistical terms (t = 2.08; p = 0.039). A percentage of 66% (R2 = 0.66) of the score variability at the Barthel index could be predicted from Braden scale scoring.

CONCLUSIONS: Dependence is not only affected by the related pathology, but also by the effect on mobility and daily-life activities, which cause a worse perception of the quality of life. The health-care model based on the case management nurse is having positive effects, especially on dependence and patients with ulcer issues.

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