JOURNAL ARTICLE
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
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Systematic review of BRAF/MEK inhibitors-induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions (SCARs).

Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) [Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and generalized bullous fixed eruption (GBFE)] are severe drug reactions that often require hospitalization and could be fatal. BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAF/MEKi) are a standard of care in patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanomas. These agents are administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs. This review has focus on BRAF/MEKi-induced SCARs. A systematic search of the following terms: 'vemurafenib', 'cobimetinib', 'dabrafenib', 'trametinib', 'encorafenib', 'binimetinib', 'Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis', 'Stevens Johnson syndrome', 'Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis', 'Generalized Bullous Fixed Eruption' 'Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome', and 'DRESS' in simple combination (every drug with each disease) and all in combination, was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and The Cochrane Library repositories, with no restriction on language, for original studies. One hundred sixty-eight original articles were found, 26 (retrospective series, case reports and conference abstracts) were selected, and 21 were included in the qualitative synthesis. A total of 31 SCAR cases (23 DRESS and 8 SJS/TEN - 1 SJS and 7 TEN -) were identified. Vemurafenib was the culprit drug in all but one case, which was dabrafenib-induced. Mean time to SCAR onset from drug intake was 15.5 and 11.4 days, for SJS/TEN and DRESS, respectively. For the DRESS cases, hepatic involvement occurred in 96% and renal alterations in 87% of patients. Overall, BRAF/MEKi-induced SCARs are rare. Among them, vemurafenib is the drug that requires more close monitoring for SCARs. Prior immunotherapy can favour SCARs. Vemurafenib DRESS is likely to occur within the first fifteen days of treatment accompanied by hepatic and renal involvement. Following vemurafenib-induced SCAR resolution, switching to dabrafenib seems to be a safe alternative for these patients' treatment.

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