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Nebulized tranexamic acid for recurring hemoptysis in critically ill patients: case series.

BACKGROUND: Hemoptysis is a clinical condition encountered in the emergency department (ED) and must be managed and investigated urgently to maintain the patient's hemostasis. The management of hemoptysis depends on treating the underlying cause. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an anti-fibrinolytic drug used to systemically control bleeding. There are a few studies available that investigate the use of nebulized tranexamic acid for hemoptysis with contradictory results. Our paper demonstrates three cases where patients presented with significant hemoptysis and had significant improvement in symptoms following the administration of nebulized tranexamic acid. The overall need for blood transfusion was reduced.

RESULTS: Three patients presented to the emergency room for evaluation of hemoptysis. All three patients had different underlying pathologies resulting in their hemoptysis and were monitored in the ICU. Initial conventional medical therapies including the correction of coagulopathy and discontinuing offending agents were utilized for treatment. After persistent symptoms, nebulized TXA at a dose of 500 mg three times a day was administered. The patients were all discharged from the hospital with improvement in their symptoms.

CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid may be considered in the treatment of hemoptysis regardless of the underlying cause. This may be utilized pending further workup and investigation into the underlying source of the bleeding.

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