Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis: current treatment

David Adams, Michel Slama
Current Opinion in Neurology 2020, 33 (5): 553-561

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv) is a rare autosomal dominant, life-threatening disease. Until recently only early stages of ATTRv-PN (polyneuropathy) had access to disease-modifying therapy (DMT), whereas there was no specific treatment for ATTRv-CM (cardiomyopathy). This review updates our knowledge about results of three phase 3 clinical trials, expert's consensus for early diagnosis and emerging biomarkers.

RECENT FINDINGS: Two phase 3 studies using RNAi and antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) were successful. Primary endpoints were progression of neuropathic score mNIS +7 and quality of Life (QOL) in a population of ATTRv-PN at different levels of severity. They knock downed circulating amyloidogenic mutant and wild-type TTR. Safety concerned ASO with a risk of thrombocytopenia. RNAi showed possible reversibility of the disease. Phase 3 ATTRACT trial-tested tafamidis versus placebo in patients with ATTRv-CM and ATTRwt-CM and showed a significant reduction of all-cause mortality and rates of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations. All three drugs obtained marketing authorization by European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and drug administration (FDA). Early diagnosis criteria for ATTRv-PN and ATTRv-CM are available. Ongoing clinical trials for ATTRv are presented. New biomarkers are plasma neurofilament light chain, intraepidermal nerve fiber density.

SUMMARY: The majority of patients with ATTRv may have now access to a DMT. Criteria for early diagnosis are available.

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