Effects of Atrial Fibrillation and Chronic Kidney Disease on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events

Wern Yew Ding, Gregory Y H Lip, Daniele Pastori, Alena Shantsila
American Journal of Cardiology 2020 July 11
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is strongly linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and both of these conditions contribute to poor cardiovascular outcomes. We evaluated the impact of renal failure on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in AF, and predictive value of the 2MACE score in this post-hoc analysis of the AMADEUS trial. The primary endpoint was MACE (composite of myocardial infarction, cardiac revascularisation and cardiovascular mortality). Secondary endpoints included the composite of stroke, major bleeding and non-cardiovascular mortality, and each of the specific outcomes separately. Of the 4,554 patients, 1,526 (33.5%) were females and the median age was 71 (IQR 64 to 77) years. There were 3,838 (84.3%) non-CKD and 716 (15.7%) CKD patients. The incidence of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality were 1.41% and 2.44% per 100 patient-years, respectively. There was no significant difference in crude study endpoints between the groups. Multivariable regression analysis found no association between CKD and MACE (HR 1.03 [95% CI, 0.45 to 2.34]). The c-index of the 2MACE score for MACE was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.71, p <0.001). In the presence of CKD, each additional point of the 2MACE score contributed to a greater risk of MACE (HR 3.17 [95% CI, 1.28 to 7.85] vs 1.48 [95% CI, 1.17 to 1.87] in the non-CKD group). In conclusion, the 2MACE score may be a useful tool for clinical risk stratification of high-risk AF patients with CKD and those at high MACE risk could be targeted for more intensive cardiovascular prevention strategies. The presence of CKD was not found to be independently associated with MACE in AF patients.

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