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Mood, Psychological, and Behavioral Factors of Health-Related Quality of Life Throughout Recovery From Sport Concussion.

OBJECTIVE: To measure alterations in mood, psychological, and behavioral factors in collegiate athletes throughout recovery from sport concussion (SC) compared with matched controls.

SETTING: University research laboratory.

PARTICIPANTS: Twenty (55% female) division I collegiate athletes with SC (19.3 ± 1.08 years old, 1.77 ± 0.11 m, 79.6 ± 23.37 kg) and 20 (55% female) uninjured matched controls (20.8 ± 2.17 years old, 1.77 ± 0.10 m, 81.9 ± 23.45 kg).

DESIGN: Longitudinal case control.

MAIN MEASURES: Self-reported concussion-related symptoms, anxiety, resilience, stigma, sleep disturbance, fatigue, and appetite were assessed at 3 time points in the SC group: T1 (≤72 hours of SC), T2 (7 days after T1), and TF (after symptom resolution). Control participants were evaluated at similar intervals. Group and group-by-sex differences were assessed using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Post hoc analyses were performed with Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) and paired-sample t tests.

RESULTS: The SC group had greater sleep disturbance than controls at T1 (P = .001; d = 1.21) and endorsed greater stigma at all time points (P ≤ .03; d ≥ 0.80). Stigma (F(2) = 3.68; P = 0.03; ηp = 0.12), sleep disturbance (F(2) = 5.27; P = .008; ηp = 0.15), and fatigue (F(2) = 3.46; P = .04; ηp = 0.11) improved throughout recovery in those with SC only. No differences were observed between males and females (P > .05).

CONCLUSION: Sleep disturbance and stigma were negatively affected by SC, highlighting potential areas for clinical interventions to maximize recovery in males and females.

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