Cardiovascular System Affection and Its Relation to First-Year Mortality in Patients Initiating Maintenance Hemodialysis

Omaima Mohamed Ali, Aml Ahmed Sayed, Wafaa Salah Mohammed, Ragaa Ramadan Mohammed
International Journal of General Medicine 2020, 13: 379-385

Background: The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has increased by 30-40% in the last decade. These patients have a higher mortality rate of 3-8 times compared to the general population. In the present study, we aimed to detect cardiovascular complications and their relation to the first-year mortality rate in patients on hemodialysis in Aswan University Hospital, upper Egypt.

Patients and Methods: Our study was a cross-sectional study which was done at the hemodialysis unit in Aswan University Hospital from May 2016 to May 2018. The study included 100 patients with ESRD on regular hemodialysis (first year on programmed hemodialysis). All patients were subjected to full clinical examination and laboratory studies includngd complete blood count (CBC), kidney function tests, serum calcium and phosphorus level, parathormone (PTH) hormone, serum albumin level, C-reactive protein (CRP), echocardiography and electrocardiogram (ECG), and lateral abdominal x-ray for detection of aortic calcification. .

Results: The present study included 47 males and 53 females, with a mean age of 50.6 ±13.89 years. The main risk factors for patients with ESRD were hypertension (48%) followed by diabetic nephropathy (36%), glomerulonephritis (15%), idiopathic etiology (11%), obstructive uropathy (8%), lupus nephritis (6%), polycystic kidney disease (4%) and cardio renal syndrome (1%). Twenty-seven deaths have been noted during the first year of dialysis treatment. The leading causes of death were cardio-vascular events (66, 67%), infection (22, 22%) and malignancy (11, 11%), The most common cardiovascular events were myocardial infarction (27.8%), sudden cardiac death (SCD) (27.8%) and heart failure (22.2%).

Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that the main risk factors for ESRD patients in Aswan University Hospital are hypertensive nephrosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis and idiopathic etiology, and the main causes of first-year mortality were cardiovascular events followed by infection and malignancy.

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